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In remote areas no treaties had been obtained at all. Strictly speaking, a Protectorate does not exist unless the people in it have agreed to be protected.
The Sierra Leone Protectorate was more in the nature of a unilateral acquisition of territory by Britain. Almost every chieftaincy in Sierra Leone responded to the British arrogation of power with armed resistance.
The Protectorate Ordinances passed in the Colony in and abolished the title of King and replaced it with "Paramount Chief". Chiefs and kings had formerly been selected by the leading members of their own communities; now all chiefs, even paramount ones, could be deposed or installed at the will of the Governor, and most of the judicial powers of the chiefs were removed and given to courts presided-over by British "District Commissioners".
The Governor decreed that a house tax of 5 s to 10 s was to be levied annually on every dwelling in the Protectorate.
To the chiefs, these reductions in their power and prestige were unbearable. When attempts were made to collect the house tax in , the chiefs and their people rose up: The two risings together are referred to as the Hut Tax War of , though they had quite different characteristics.
When most of these defences had been eliminated, Bureh was captured or surrendered accounts differ in November. The Mende war was a mass uprising, planned somehow to commence everywhere on 27 and 28 April, in which almost all "outsiders"—whether European or Creole—were seized and summarily executed.
Governor Fleming swears-in special constables to suppress it. Railway and Public Works department strikes, in part "on account of the nonpayment of War Bonus gratuities to African workers, although these had been paid to other government employees, especially European personnel.
The Creole intelligentsia remain neutral. Rioting erupts in Freetown. Creole intelligentsia supports the strikers.
According to Wyse this is the first time workers and intelligentsia acted in harmony. The strike was viewed as a threat to stability by the government, and suppressed by troops and police.
Haidara Kontorfilli rebellion , named after its charismatic Muslim leader. Wyse gives the causes as "heavy handedness of chiefly rule and the deteriorating social and economic conditions, as well as the erosive nature of colonial rule.
Series of strikes and civil disobedience. January, led by Creole gunner Emmanuel Cole. Riot at Baoma Chiefdom of Bo District.
One hundred people committed for trial before supreme court for their part in it. Strikers riot and burn the house of the African personnel officer.
Cause was a rumour that the Paramount Chief of Luawa Chiefdom would be upheld and reinstated by the government. Pujehun, South Eastern Province.
Several villages refuse to pay house tax to government unless chief deposed. Intimidation practised on government sympathisers. About "rioters" from outlying villages attack the town of Bandejuma.
Others dealt with summarily. Freetown General Strike over rising cost-of-living and low pay. In the early 19th century Freetown served as the residence of the British governor who also ruled the Gold Coast now Ghana and the Gambia settlements.
Sierra Leone also served as the educational centre of British West Africa. Fourah Bay College , established in , rapidly became a magnet for English-speaking Africans on the west coast.
For more than a century, it was the only European-style university in western Sub-Saharan Africa. After the Hut Tax War there was no more large-scale military resistance to colonialism.
Resistance and dissent continued, but took other forms. Vocal political dissent came mainly from the Creoles, who had a sizeable middle and upper class of business-people and European-educated professionals such as doctors and lawyers.
In the midth century they had enjoyed a period of considerable political influence, but in the late 19th century the government became much less open to them.
They continued to press for political rights, however, and operated a variety of newspapers which governors considered troublesome and demagogic.
In , a new constitution was put in place, introducing elected representation 3 out of 22 members for the first time, with the first elections held on 28 October.
Prominent among the Creoles demanding change were the bourgeois nationalist H. African resistance was not limited to political discussion.
Sierra Leone developed an active trade union movement whose strikes were often accompanied by sympathetic rioting among the general population.
Besides the colonial employers, popular hostility was targeted against the tribal chiefs who the British had transformed into functionaries in the colonial system of indirect rule.
Their role was to provide policing, collect taxes, and obtain corvee labour forced labour exacted from those unable to pay taxes for the colonialists; in return, the colonialists maintained them in a privileged position over the other Africans.
Chiefs not willing to play this role were replaced by more compliant ones. According to Kilson, the attitude of the Africans toward their chiefs became ambivalent: Throughout the 20th century, there were numerous riots directed against tribal chiefs.
These culminated in the Protectorate-wide riots of —, which were suppressed only by a considerable slaughter of peasants by the army.
After those riots, reforms were introduced: Sierra Leone remained divided into a Colony and a Protectorate, with separate and different political systems constitutionally defined for each.
Antagonism between the two entities escalated to a heated debate in , when proposals were introduced to provide for a single political system. Most of the proposals came from the Protectorate.
The Krio , led by Isaac Wallace-Johnson , opposed the proposals, the main effect of which would have been to diminish their political power. It was due to the astute politics of Sir Milton Margai that the educated Protectorate elite was won over to join forces with the paramount chiefs in the face of Krio intransigence.
Later, Margai used the same skills to win-over opposition leaders and moderate Krio elements for the achievement of independence.
In November , Margai oversaw the drafting of a new constitution, which united the separate Colonial and Protectorate legislatures and—most importantly—provided a framework for decolonization.
Margai was also re-elected as Chief Minister by an overwhelming majority. Sierra Leone retained a parliamentary system of government and was a member of the Commonwealth of Nations.
In May , Sierra Leone held its first general election as an independent nation. Sir Milton Margai was very popular among SierraLeoneans during his time in power.
An important aspect of his character was his self-effacement; he was neither corrupt nor did he make a lavish display of his power or status.
His government was based on the rule of law and the notion of separation of powers, with multiparty political institutions and fairly viable representative structures.
Margai used his conservative ideology to lead Sierra Leone without much strife. He appointed government officials with a clear eye to satisfy various ethnic groups.
Margai employed a brokerage style of politics by sharing political power between political groups and the paramount chiefs in the provinces.
In response, Margai declared a state of emergency across the country. He was accused of corruption and of a policy of affirmative action in favour of his own Mende ethnic group .
Sir Albert had the opportunity to perpetuate himself in power, but he elected not to do so even when the opportunities presented themselves.
He had the police and the army on his side and nothing could have prevented him from achieving his ambition to hold on to power, but he chose not to and called for free and fair elections.
Within hours of taking office, Stevens was ousted in a bloodless military coup led by the commander of the army , Brigadier General David Lansana , a close ally of Sir Albert Margai who had appointed Lansana to the position in Lansana placed Stevens under house arrest in Freetown and insisted the determination of office of the prime minister should await the election of the tribal representatives to the house.
On 23 March, a group of senior military officers in the Sierra Leone Army led by Brigadier Andrew Juxon-Smith overrode this action by seizing control of the government, arresting Lansana, and suspending the constitution.
The democratic constitution was restored, and power was handed back to Stevens, who assumed the office of prime minister. Stevens assumed power in with a great deal of hope and ambition.
Much trust was placed upon him as he championed multi-party politics. Stevens had campaigned on a platform of bringing the tribes together under socialist principles.
During his first decade or so in power, Stevens renegotiated some of what he called "useless prefinanced schemes" contracted by his predecessors, Albert Margai of the SLPP and Juxon-Smith of the NRC, which were said to have left the country in an economically deprived state.
Stevens began efforts that would later bridge the distance between the provinces and the city. Roads and hospitals were constructed in the provinces, and paramount chiefs and provincial peoples became a prominent force in Freetown.
He removed the SLPP from competitive politics in general elections, some believed, through the use of violence and intimidation. After the return to civilian rule, by-elections were held beginning in autumn and an all-APC cabinet was appointed.
Calm was not completely restored. In November , unrest in the provinces led Stevens to declare a state of emergency. Brigadier General Bangura, who had reinstated Stevens as Prime Minister, was widely considered the only person who could put the brakes on Stevens.
The army was devoted to Bangura and it was believed, in some quarters, that this made him potentially dangerous to Stevens.
In January , Bangura was arrested and charged with conspiracy and plotting to commit a coup against the Stevens government. After a trial that lasted a few months, Bangura was convicted and sententenced to death.
He was hanged on 29 March in Freetown. Major General Momoh was a close ally and very loyal to Stevens. On 23 March , soldiers loyal to the executed Brigadier John Amadu Bangura held a mutiny in Freetown and other parts of the country in opposition of the Stevens government.
Several soldiers were arrested for their involvement in the mutiny, including Corporal Foday Sankoh who was convicted of treason and jailed for seven years at the Pademba Road Prison.
In April , a new republican constitution was adopted under which Stevens became President. These problems became so severe that the SLPP boycotted the general election ; as a result the APC won 84 of the 85 elected seats.
In the early s, Siaka Stevens formed his own personal force known as the State Security Division SSD , in order to protect him and to maintain his hold on power.
Many of the SSD officers were from the provinces, and were very loyal to Stevens. The SSD officers guided Stevens and were deployed across Sierra Leone to put down any rebellion or demonstration against the Stevens government.
An alleged plot to overthrow President Stevens failed in On 19 July , 14 senior army and government officials including Brigadier David Lansana, former cabinet minister Dr.
Mohamed Sorie Forna, former cabinet minister and journalist Ibrahim Bash-Taqi and Lieutenant Habib Lansana Kamara were executed after they were convicted for attempting a coup.
In March , Stevens was re-elected president, without opposition. In , a nationwide student demonstration against the government disrupted Sierra Leone politics.
However, the demonstration was quickly put down by the army and SSD officers. A general election was called later that year in which corruption was again endemic.
On 12 July , official figures released by the government showed 97 percent of Sierra Leoneans voted in favour of the one-party state.
The SLPP, other opposition parties and civil right groups said the referendum votes were massively rigged, and that voters were intimidated by security forces loyal to Stevens.
The constitution referendum made the APC the only legal political party; all other political parties were banned, including the main opposition the SLPP.
The first elections under the new one-party constitution took place on 1 May Elections in about two-thirds of the constituencies were contested.
Because of irregularities, the government cancelled elections in 13 constituencies. By-elections took place on 4 June Stevens, who had been head-of-state of Sierra Leone for 18 years, retired from that position in November at the end of his term, although he continued his role as chairman of the ruling APC party.
Many in the country had expected Stevens to name his vice president and loyal ally, Sorie Ibrahim Koroma , as his successor. Momoh was very loyal to Stevens who had appointed him to head of the military fifteen years earlier; Momoh and Stevens were both members of the minority Limba ethnic group.
Momoh retired from the military and was elected President without opposition on 1 October A formal inauguration was held in January , and new parliamentary elections were held in May Siaka Stevens is generally criticised for dictatorial methods and government corruption, but he reduced the ethnic polarization in government by incorporating members of various ethnic groups into his all-dominant APC government.
Another legacy of Stevens was that for eighteen years while he was in power, he kept the country safe from civil war and armed rebellion.
Despite his dictatorial governing style, Stevens regularly interacted with the people of Sierra Leone by making surprise visits. Stevens also regularly made surprise visits to the poor merchants, where he was often seen buying his own food at a local market with his security team keeping their distance.
Stevens often stood and waved to the Sierra Leonean people from an open car when travelling with his convoy.
With the lack of new faces in his cabinet, however, criticisms soon arose that Momoh was simply perpetuating the rule of Stevens.
The first years under the Momoh administration were characterised by corruption, which Momoh defused by sacking several senior cabinet ministers.
After an alleged attempt to overthrow Momoh in March , more than 60 senior government officials were arrested, including Vice-President Francis Minah , who was removed from office, convicted for plotting the coup, and executed by hanging with five others in In October , due to mounting domestic and international pressure for reforms, President Momoh created a commission to review the one-party constitution.
There was great suspicion that President Momoh was not serious about his promise of political reform, as APC rule continued to be increasingly marked by abuses of power.
Meanwhile, an increasing burden was placed on the country by the rebellion in the eastern part of Sierra Leone. The brutal civil war in neighbouring Liberia played an undeniable role in the outbreak of fighting in Sierra Leone.
Sankoh was British-trained and had undergone guerrilla training in Libya. The government of Sierra Leone, overwhelmed by a crumbling economy and corruption, was unable to mount significant resistance.
At this time, the Momoh government was crumbling. Several senior government officials had resigned to form opposition parties, while there were suspicions that President Momoh was not serious about political reform.
Abuses of power had continued and the APC was alleged to have been hoarding arms and planning a violent campaign against the opposition parties ahead of multi-party general elections scheduled for late The state had been unable to play civil servants, leading to the looting of government property and a population of aimless youth when schools were closed.
The coup was largely popular because it promised to bring peace, but the NPRC Junta immediately suspended the constitution, banned all political parties, limited freedom of speech and freedom of the press and enacted a rule-by-decree policy, in which soldiers were granted unlimited powers of administrative detention without charge or trial.
Dumbuya and former inspector-general of police Bambay Kamara. Seargent Mohamed Lamin Bangura and some junior army officers were identified as being behind the coup.
Seventeen soldiers were executed, including Bangura, Kanu and Dumbuya. Several prominent members of the Momoh government who had been in detention at the Pa Demba Road prison, including former insepctor-general of police Bambay Kamara were also executed.
Musa was accused by Strasser, on the advice of high-ranking NPRC soldiers, that he had become too powerful and was a threat to Strasser.
Musa, who was a close ally and childhood friend of Strasser, denied the allegation and claimed his accusers were the threat.
On 16 January , after about four years in power, Strasser was arrested by his own bodyguards in a coup led by Bio and backed by many high-ranking soldiers of the NPRC junta.
Strasser was immediately flown into exile in Conakry , Guinea. Bio stated in a public broadcast that his support for returning Sierra Leone to a democratically elected civilian government and his commitment to ending the civil war were his motivations for the coup.
President Kabbah took power with a great promise of ending the civil war, opened dialogues with the then-defeated RUF and invited RUF-leader Sankoh for peace negotiations, signing the Abidjan Peace Accord on 30 November In January , under international pressure, the Kabbah government ended their contract with Executive Outcomes even though a neutral monitoring force had not arrived.
This created an opportunity for the RUF to regroup and renew military attacks. Sankoh was arrested in Nigeria, and by the end of March the peace accord had collapsed.
On May 25, , a group of seventeen soldiers in the Sierra Leone army led by Corporal Tamba Gborie freed and armed prisoners from the Pademba Road prison in Freetown.
Koroma suspended the constitution, banned demonstrations, closed all private radio stations, and granted unlimited powers to soldiers. Koroma invited the RUF rebels to join his coup.
Facing little resistance from army loyalists, five thousand rag-tag rebel fighters overran the capital. Koroma appealed to Nigeria for the release of Foday Sankoh, appointing the absent leader to the position of deputy chairman of the AFRC.
The Kamajors, a group of traditional fighters mostly from the Mende ethnic group under the command of Deputy Defence Minister Samuel Hinga Norman , remained loyal to President Kabbah and defended the Southern part Sierra Leone from the rebels.
The Kamajors and rebels, including the RUF soldiers, regularly fought each other, and human rights violations were committed by both sides.
The democratically elected government of President Kabbah was reinstated in March Koroma fled to the rebel strongholds in the east of the country.
Kabbah returned to power with Albert Joe Demby as vice president. On 31 July , President Kabbah disbanded the Sierra Leone military and introduced a proposal for a new military.
The first of the 6,member force began arriving in December, and the UN Security Council voted in February to increase the force to 11,, and later to 13, In May, when nearly all Nigerian forces had left and UN forces were trying to disarm the RUF in eastern Sierra Leone, the RUF took over peacekeepers hostage , some of the rebels using captured weapons and armoured personnel carriers to advance on the capital.
The day hostage crisis resulted in more fighting between the RUF and government forces as UN troops launched Operation Khukri to end the siege.
The situation in the country deteriorated to such an extent that British troops were deployed in Operation Palliser , originally simply to evacuate foreign nationals.
The British were the catalyst for the cease-fire that ended the civil war. Elements of the British Army , together with administrators and politicians, remained in Sierra Leone, helping to train the new armed forces, improve the infrastructure of the country and administer financial and material aid.
Tony Blair , the prime minister of Britain at the time of the British intervention, is regarded as a hero by the people of Sierra Leone, many of whom are keen for more British involvement.
On 4 August in a broadcast to the nation, President Kabbah announced that presidential and parliamentary elections would be held on 28 July Hundreds of thousands of people were forced from their homes and many became refugees in Guinea and Liberia.
In , UN forces moved into rebel-held areas and began to disarm rebel soldiers. By January , President Kabbah declared the civil war officially over.
In May , Kabbah was re-elected president by an overwhelming majority. By , the disarmament process was complete. Also in , a UN-backed war crimes court began holding trials of senior leaders from both sides of the war.
Elections were held in May Some UN peacekeepers remained to assist the Sierra Leone government until the end of Subsequently, the Sierra Leonean Government and the UN agreed to establish the Special Court for Sierra Leone to try those who "bear the greatest responsibility for the commission of crimes against humanity, war crimes and serious violations of international humanitarian law, as well as crimes under relevant Sierra Leonean law within the territory of Sierra Leone since 30 November Norman was arrested when the indictments were announced, while Bockarie and Koroma remained in hiding.
Koroma was also rumoured to have been killed, though his death remains unconfirmed. Two of the accused, Foday Sankoh and Hinga Norman, have died while incarcerated.
Two days later, Taylor attempted to flee Nigeria, but he was apprehended by Nigerian authorities and transferred to Freetown under UN guard. In August , Sierra Leone held presidential and parliamentary elections.
They had a good turnout and were initially judged by official observers to be "free, fair and credible". A run-off election was held in September , and Ernest Bai Koroma , the candidate of the APC, was elected president and sworn-in the same day.
By , there had been an increase in the number of drug cartels, many from Colombia , using Sierra Leone as a base to ship drugs to Europe. President Koroma quickly amended the existing legislation against drug trafficking—inherited at independence in —to address the international concerns, increasing punishment for offenders in terms of prohibitive fines, lengthier prison terms, and provision for extradition of offenders wanted elsewhere, including the United States.
In , the country was impacted by the Ebola virus epidemic in Sierra Leone. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. This article has multiple issues.
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Granville Town, Province of Freedom. Sierra Leone Colony and Protectorate. British and Creole intervention in the Sierra Leone hinterland in the 19th century.
Hut Tax War of History of Sierra Leone — Sierra Leone Civil War. The rounde report which follows is from Major A.
Abraham, Mende Government , pp 24, 29, 30, and especially He cites British Parliamentary Papers , vol xlvii, , p Based on account of the Portuguese chronicler De Almada.
Retrieved 17 November The Wesleyan Juvenile Offering: Retrieved 29 February Report for ", in Kilson, pp , 7.
Archived from the original on 26 November Retrieved 17 June Retrieved 22 August Child soldiers, adult interests: The History of Western Africa.
A dirty war in West Africa: State failure and state weakness in a time of terror. War and state collapse: The case of Sierra Leone M.
Bureau of International Labor Affairs , U. Department of Labor Retrieved 4 December Ucko, "Can limited intervention work?
The Worlds Most Resilient People. Years in Sierra Leone —present. Pre Atlantic slave trade — British colony — Early independence —78 Commonwealth realm —71 Civil War — to present Ebola virus epidemic.
Wear, and ensure your passenger wears, a correctly fastened and approved helmet. Ferry travel is risky due to generally low safety standards and adverse weather.
Vessel passenger limits are sometimes exceeded and, in many cases, insufficient life jackets are carried.
The Australian Government does not provide information on the safety of individual commercial airlines or flight paths. Strong coastal currents are common.
Research local laws before travelling, especially for an extended stay. If you are arrested or jailed, the Australian Government will do what it can to help you under our Consular services charter.
But we cannot get you out of trouble or out of jail. Carrying or using drugs. Areas where photography is prohibited may not be clearly marked or defined.
Some Australian criminal laws apply overseas. If you commit these offences, you may be prosecuted in Australia. Laws include those relating to:. Staying within the law.
Travel on your Australian passport at all times. There are conservative standards of dress and behaviour in Sierra Leone, particularly for women.
Take care not to offend. The Islamic holy month of Ramadan is expected to occur between early May and early June During Ramadan, take care to respect religious and cultural sensitivities, rules and customs.
In particular, avoid eating, drinking and smoking in public and in the presence of people who are fasting. Make sure your policy includes adequate coverage for any pre-existing conditions.
The Australian Government will not pay for your medical expenses overseas or medical evacuation costs. This can be very expensive and cost you many thousands of dollars upfront.
Consider your physical and mental health before travelling, especially if you have an existing medical condition. Not all medications available over the counter or by prescription in Australia are available in other countries.
Some may be considered illegal or a controlled substance, even if prescribed by an Australian doctor. Consult your doctor about alternatives well in advance of travel.
Take legal prescription medicine with you so you remain in good health. Lassa fever is a known risk in all West African countries. A contained outbreak of EVD occurred in The EVD outbreak overwhelmed many local healthcare facilities.
Ebola Department of Health. Yellow fever is a potentially fatal viral disease transmitted by mosquitoes, which is preventable by vaccination.
Malaria and other tropical diseases are common in West African countries, including Sierra Leone. Exercise appropriate precautions if engaging in activities that expose you to risk of infection.
Water-borne, food-borne, parasitic and other infectious diseases including cholera, lassa fever, hepatitis, bilharzia, and tuberculosis occur with more serious outbreaks from time to time.
The rainy season is May to November when flooding may occur and roads may become impassable. In the past, flooding has resulted in deaths and the displacement of large numbers of people.
On 14 August , a mudslide in the Regent area of Freetown resulted in hundreds of deaths and injuries. Depending on what you need, your best option may be to first contact your family, friends, airline, travel agent, tour operator, employer or travel insurer.
Your travel insurer should have a hour emergency number. Australia does not have an Embassy or Consulate in Sierra Leone. Australian High Commission, Ghana Twitter: Check the High Commission website for information about opening hours and temporary closures that may affect service provision.
Someone I know needs help. See Travel smart for general advice for all travellers. Passport Ensure your passport is valid for at least six months from the date you intend to return to Australia.
Safety and security Civil unrest and political tension Political demonstrations and large public gatherings can turn violent. The security situation in the region bordering Liberia is unsettled.
Avoid protests, rallies, and other large public demonstrations. Monitor the media and other sources for news of planned and possible unrest.
Avoid unnecessary travel to the border with Guinea. Be particularly alert to possible disruptions to security near the border with Liberia.
Crime There are high levels of crime in Sierra Leone, including in Freetown. Carry only what you need. Leave other valuables, including your passport, in a secure location.
Avoid carrying bags that are easy to snatch. When driving, keep windows closed and car doors locked, including when moving.
Scams Internet scams come in many forms, including romance, friendship, business and employment opportunities. If you are the victim of a scam, get legal advice.
Scams Terrorism Terrorism is a threat throughout the world, including in Sierra Leone. Be alert to possible threats, especially in public places.
Report any suspicious activity or items to police. Take official warnings seriously. Follow the instructions of local authorities. If there is an attack, leave the affected area immediately if it is safe to do so.
Avoid the affected area in the aftermath of an attack because of the risk of secondary attacks. Consider all options carefully.
Road travel Road travel outside the Freetown Peninsula is hazardous, especially at night. Familiarise yourself with local traffic laws and practices before driving.
Carry personal identity and vehicle registration and ownership papers at all times. Be alert to possible hazards, especially at night.
Keep your vehicle doors locked and windows up at all times, including when driving — see Safety and security.
Motorcycles Check with your travel insurer whether your policy covers you when using a motorcycle, quad bike or similar vehicle. Taxis Only use registered taxis and limousines, preferably those arranged through your hotel.
Public transport Public transport is limited and safety and maintenance standards can be unreliable. Boat travel Ferry travel is risky due to generally low safety standards and adverse weather.
Travelling by boat Air travel The Australian Government does not provide information on the safety of individual commercial airlines or flight paths.
Air travel Beaches and swimming Strong coastal currents are common. Always seek advice from locals before swimming. Drug laws Penalties for drug offences are severe and include mandatory prison sentences.
Carrying or using drugs Other laws While perhaps legal in some countries, the following activities are illegal in Sierra Leone: LGBTI travellers export of precious minerals from Sierra Leone without a licence from the Ministry of Mines and Resources taking photographs or video of government buildings, airports or bridges.
Australian laws Some Australian criminal laws apply overseas. Laws include those relating to: Local customs There are conservative standards of dress and behaviour in Sierra Leone, particularly for women.